One of the distinct features of the canonical gospels is the amount of geographical and temporal details they contain.  They do not just tell you the things Jesus said and did, but they tell you where and when He did them.  This is in stark contrast to many of the Gnostic gospels such as The Gospel of Thomas which provide few (if any) details regarding geography and time.

I have spent a lot of time in the past six months studying and comparing the four Gospels.  In the course of my studies, I noticed that certain evangelists seem to provide more geographical and temporal markers than other evangelists, so I thought it would be interesting to catalogue all of the geographical and temporal markers in the Gospels to determine who provided the most detail.

Definitions

A temporal marker is any statement that helps answer the question “When did this happen?”  A geographical marker is any statement that helps answer the question, “Where did this happen?”  I subdivided geographical markers into two categories: strong, weak.  A strong geographical marker is any statement which describes movement from one geographical point to another (e.g. “Jesus journeyed to Jerusalem).  A weak geographical marker is any statement which describes the location or movement of people or things within a particular location (e.g. “she knelt at Jesus’ feet”).

Findings

Here is what I discovered:

Mt Mk Lk Jn
Strong Geographical 75 108 167 43
Weak Geographical 54 76 89 3
Temporal 56 73 167 48
Total 185 184 423 94

 

Luke is the undisputed winner!  This makes sense given Luke’s opening statement regarding the amount of research he undertook to compose his gospel (Lk 1:1-4).  Like every good historian, Luke was a lover of detail.

To be fair to the other evangelists, Luke’s gospel is the longest of the four, so he has more opportunity to include geographical and temporal markers.

Mt Mk Lk Jn
# words 18,346 11,304[1] 19,482 15,635
# unique words 4,058 2,930 4,724 2,695
Size % compared to Lk 94.1% 58% n/a 80.2%
% of Geographical & Temporal markers compared to Lk 44% 61% n/a 22%

 

If we adjust the figures for the other gospels to compensate for Luke’s greater length, Luke still emerges as the evangelist who provides the greatest number of geographical and temporal details:

Mt Mk Lk Jn
Adjusted # of Geographical & Temporal markers 196 364 423 (not adjusted) 113
Adjusted % of Geographical & Temporal markers compared to Lk 46% 86% n/a 27%

 

I find it interesting that next to Luke, Mark provides the greatest number of geographical and temporal details (even without adjusting for length, Mark [184] provides just as many details as Matthew [185]).  Why?  Because it demonstrates a common assumption of liberal scholars to be false.  Conservative and liberal scholars alike agree that Mark was the first gospel written, and that Matthew and Luke used Mark in the composition of their own gospels.   But liberal scholars often suppose that the Jesus tradition grew over time; i.e. more details were added as time progressed.  In fact, the opposite appears to be the case.  When Matthew and Luke include a periscope contained in Mark, they usually shorten the material, leaving out geographical and temporal details provided by Mark.  If anything, the Jesus tradition diminished over time.

While Luke provides the most detail in general, Mark takes the honor of providing the greatest percentage of geographical details, and John take the honor of providing the greatest percentage of temporal details:

Mt Mk Lk Jn
% of Geographical markers 70% 72% 61% 49%
% of Temporal markers 30% 28% 39% 51%

 

Details

For those of you who love the details, here are my lists of the strong geographical, weak geographical, and temporal markers in the four gospels:

Strong Geographical Markers in Matthew

  1. “in Bethlehem” (2:1)
  2. “from the East” (2:1)
  3. “to Egypt” (2:14)
  4. “to the land of Israel” (2:20)
  5. “the district of Galilee” (2:22)
  6. “in the river Jordan” (3:6)
  7. “from Galilee to the Jordan” (3:13)
  8. “into the wilderness” (4:1)
  9. “to the holy city…on the pinnacle of the temple” (4:5)
  10. “a very high mountain” (4:8)
  11. “into Galilee” (4:12)
  12. “leaving Nazareth he went and dwelt in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali” (4:13)
  13. “by the Sea of Galilee” (4:18)
  14. “went about all Galilee” (4:23)
  15. “throughout all Syria” (4:24)
  16. “from Galilee and the Decap’olis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan” (4:25)
  17. “went up on the mountain” (5:1)
  18. “down from the mountain” (8:1)
  19. “as he entered Capernaum” (8:5)
  20. “entered Peter’s house” (8:14)
  21. “to the other side” (8:18)
  22. “to the other side, to the country of the Gadarenes” (8:28)
  23. “into the sea” (8:32)
  24. “into the city” (8:33)
  25. “he crossed over and came to his own city” (9:1)
  26. “came to the ruler’s house” (9:23)
  27. “through all that district” (9:26)
  28. “through all that district” (9:31)
  29. “all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues” (9:35)
  30. “he went on from there to teach and preach in their cities” (11:1)
  31. “in prison” (11:2)
  32. “went away from there” (13:53-54)
  33. “to his own country” (13:53-54)
  34. “in their synagogue” (13:53-54)
  35. “from the towns” (14:13)
  36. “go before him to the other side” (14:22)
  37. “went up on the mountain” (14:23)
  38. “when they had crossed over” (14:34)
  39. “to land at Gennesaret” (14:34)
  40. “all that region” (14:35)
  41. “from Jerusalem” (15:1)
  42. “withdrew to the district of Tyre and Sidon” (15:21)
  43. “from that region” (15:22)
  44. “Jesus went on from there and passed along the Sea of Galilee” (15:29)
  45. “he went up on the mountain” (15:29)
  46. “to the region of Magadan” (15:39)
  47. “the other side” (16:5)
  48. “into the district of Caesarea Philippi” (16:13)
  49. “up a high mountain” (17:1)
  50. “in Galilee” (17:22)
  51. “to Capernaum” (17:24)
  52. “he went away from Galilee and entered the region of Judea beyond the Jordan” (19:1)
  53. “going up to Jerusalem” (20:17)
  54. “out of Jericho” (20:29)
  55. “drew near to Jerusalem” (21:1)
  56. “came to Bethphage, to the Mount of Olives” (21:1)
  57. “he entered Jerusalem” (21:10)
  58. “entered the temple” (21:12)
  59. “he went out of the city to Bethany” (21:17)
  60. “returning to the city” (21:18)
  61. “entered the temple” (21:23)
  62. “in the palace of the high priest” (26:3)
  63. “at Bethany” (26:6)
  64. “in the house of Simon the leper” (26:6)
  65. “to the Mount of Olives” (26:30)
  66. “went…to…Gethsemane” (26:36)
  67. “led him to Caiaphas the high priest” (26:57)
  68. “led him away and delivered him to Pilate the governor” (27:2)
  69. “took Jesus into the praetorium” (27:27)
  70. “came to a place called Golgotha” (27:33)
  71. “from Galilee” (27:55)
  72. “in his own new tomb” (27:60)
  73. “into the city” (28:11)
  74. “to Galilee” (28:16)
  75. “to the mountain” (28:16)

Weak Geographical Markers in Matthew

  1. “as Jesus passed on from there” (9:9)
  2. “he sat at table in the house” (9:10)
  3. “went in” (9:25)
  4. “as Jesus passed on from there” (9:27)
  5. “he entered the house” (9:28)
  6. “As they were going away” (9:32)
  7. “through the grainfields” (12:1)
  8. “he went on from there, and entered their synagogue” (12:9)
  9. “withdrew from there” (12:15)
  10. “out of the house” (13:1)
  11. “sat beside the sea” (13:1)
  12. “he got into a boat” (13:2)
  13. “the whole crowd stood on the beach” (13:2)
  14. “he left the crowds and went into the house” (13:36)
  15. “he withdrew from there” (14:13)
  16. “in a boat” (14:13)
  17. “to a lonely place apart” (14:13)
  18. “into the boat” (14:22)
  19. “the boat by this time was many furlongs distant from the land” (14:24)
  20. “walking on the sea” (14:25)
  21. “got out of the boat” (14:29)
  22. “on the water” (14:29)
  23. “came to Jesus” (14:29)
  24. “into the boat” (14:32)
  25. “Jesus went away from there” (15:21)
  26. “at his feet” (15:30)
  27. “he got into the boat” (15:39)
  28. “down the mountain” (17:9)
  29. “they came to the crowd” (17:14)
  30. “went away” (19:15)
  31. “by the roadside” (20:30)
  32. “Jesus was passing by” (20:30)
  33. “on the road” (21:8)
  34. “in the temple” (21:14)
  35. “in the temple” (21:15)
  36. “by the wayside” (21:19)
  37. “left the temple” (24:1)
  38. “as he sat at table” (26:7)
  39. “going a little farther” (26:39)
  40. “he came to the disciples” (26:40)
  41. “went away and prayed” (26:42)
  42. “leaving them again, he went away and prayed” (26:44)
  43. “at a distance as far as the courtyard of the high priest, and going inside” (26:58)
  44. “outside in the courtyard” (26:69)
  45. “out to the porch” (26:71)
  46. “he went out” (26:75)
  47. “in the temple” (27:5)
  48. “he departed” (27:5)
  49. “led him away” (27:31)
  50. “over his head” (27:37)
  51. “looking on from afar” (27:55)
  52. “sitting opposite the sepulcher” (27:61)
  53. “gathered before Pilate” (27:62)
  54. “ran to tell his disciples” (28:8)

Temporal Markers in Matthew

  1. “in the days of Herod the king” (2:1)
  2. “until the death of Herod” (2:15)
  3. “in those days” (3:1)
  4. “forty days and forty nights” (4:2)
  5. “at that very moment” (8:13)
  6. “that evening” (8:16)
  7. “while he was speaking to them” (9:18)
  8. “for twelve years” (9:20)
  9. “when the crowd had been put outside” (9:25)
  10. “as they went away” (11:7)
  11. “At that time” (11:25)
  12. “At that time” (12:1)
  13. “on the Sabbath” (12:1)
  14. “While he was still speaking” (12:46)
  15. “That same day” (13:1)
  16. “And when Jesus had finished these parables” (13:53)
  17. “at that time” (14:1)
  18. “Now when Jesus heard this” (14:13)
  19. “As he went ashore” (14:14)
  20. “when it was evening” (14:15)
  21. “the day is now over” (14:15)
  22. “after he had dismissed the crowds” (14:23)
  23. “when evening came” (14:23)
  24. “in the fourth watch of the night” (14:25)
  25. “instantly” (15:28)
  26. “three days” (15:32)
  27. “From that time” (16:21)
  28. “after six days” (17:1)
  29. “as they were coming” (17:9)
  30. “instantly” (17:18)
  31. “when Jesus had finished these sayings” (19:1)
  32. “immediately” (20:34)
  33. “In the morning” (21:18)
  34. “at once” (21:19)
  35. “at once” (21:20)
  36. “the same day” 22:23)
  37. “after two days the Passover is coming” (26:2)
  38. “on the first day of Unleavened Bread” (26:17)
  39. “When it was evening” (26:20)
  40. “as they were eating” (26:21)
  41. “as they were eating” (26:26)
  42. “when they had sung a hymn” (26:30)
  43. “one hour” (26:40)
  44. “While he was still speaking” (26:47)
  45. “At that hour” (26:55)
  46. “After a little while” (26:73)
  47. “when morning came” (27:1)
  48. “As they went out” (27:32)
  49. “when they had crucified him” (27:35)
  50. “from the sixth hour” (27:45)
  51. “about the ninth hour” (27:46)
  52. “when it was evening” (27:57)
  53. “Next day, that is, after the day of Preparation” (27:62)
  54. “after the sabbath” (28:1)
  55. “toward the dawn of the first day of the week” (28:1)
  56. “While they were going” (28:11)

 

 

Strong Geographical Markers in Mark

  1. “in the wilderness” (1:4)
  2. “all the country of Judea” (1:5)
  3. “in the river Jordan” (1:5)
  4. “from Nazareth” (1:9)
  5. “into the wilderness” (1:12)
  6. “into Galilee” (1:14)
  7. “by the Sea of Galilee” (1:16)
  8. “into Capernaum” (1:21)
  9. “entered the synagogue” (1:21)
  10. “left the synagogue” (1:29)
  11. “entered the house of Simon and Andrew” (1:29)
  12. “went out to a lonely place” (1:35)
  13. “throughout all Galilee” (1:39)
  14. “in their synagogues” (1:39)
  15. “out in the country” (1:45)
  16. “from every quarter” (1:45)
  17. “to Capernaum” (2:1)
  18. “at home” (2:1)
  19. “beside the sea” (2:13)
  20. “at the tax office” (2:14)
  21. “entered the synagogue” (3:1)
  22. “to the sea” (3:7)
  23. “from Galilee [and] Judea 8and Jerusalem and Idume’a and from beyond the Jordan and from about Tyre and Sidon” (3:7-8)
  24. “up on the mountain” (3:13)
  25. “went home” (3:19)
  26. “from Jerusalem” (3:22)
  27. “beside the sea” (4:1)
  28. “beside the sea on the land” (4:1)
  29. “across to the other side” (4:35)
  30. “the other side of the sea” (5:1)
  31. “the country of the Ger’asenes” (5:1)
  32. “among the tombs and on the mountains” (5:5)
  33. “in the city and in the country” (5:14)
  34. “from their neighborhood” (5:17)
  35. “in the Decap’olis” (5:20)
  36. “to the other side” (5:21)
  37. “from the ruler’s house” (5:35)
  38. “to the house” (5:38)
  39. “went away from there and came to his own country” (6:1)
  40. “in the synagogue” (6:2)
  41. “among the villages” (6:6)
  42. “to a lonely place” (6:31)
  43. “to a lonely place” (6:32)
  44. “from all the towns” (6:33)
  45. “ashore” (6:34)
  46. “go before him to the other side” (6:45)
  47. “to Bethsaida” (6:45)
  48. “went up on the mountain” (6:46)
  49. “on the sea” (6:47)
  50. “on the land” (6:47)
  51. “crossed over” (6:53)
  52. “to land at Gennesaret” (6:53)
  53. “in villages, cities, or country” (6:56)
  54. “in the market places” (6:56)
  55. “from Jerusalem” (7:1)
  56. “entered the house” (7:17)
  57. “went away to the region of Tyre and Sidon” (7:24)
  58. “entered a house” (7:24)
  59. “he returned from the region of Tyre, and went through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee, through the region of the Decapolis” (7:31)
  60. “the district of Dalmanutha” (8:10)
  61. “to the other side” (8:13)
  62. “to Bethsaida” (8:22)
  63. “out of the village” (8:23)
  64. “to the villages of Caesarea Philippi” (8:27)
  65. “up a high mountain” (9:2)
  66. “down the mountain” (9:9)
  67. “entered the house” (9:28)
  68. “went on from there and passed through Galilee” (9:30)
  69. “came to Capernaum” (9:33)
  70. “in the house” (9:33)
  71. “he left there and went to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan” (10:1)
  72. “on the road, going up to Jerusalem” (10:32)
  73. “to Jericho” (10:46)
  74. “Jericho” (10:46)
  75. “to Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives” (11:1)
  76. “into the village opposite you” (11:2)
  77. “to Bethany” (11:11)
  78. “from Bethany” (11:12)
  79. “to Jerusalem” (11:15)
  80. “entered the temple” (11:15)
  81. “out of the city” (11:19)
  82. “to Jerusalem” (11:27)
  83. “in the temple” (11:27)
  84. “in the temple” (12:35)
  85. “out of the temple” (13:1)
  86. “while he was at Bethany… as he sat at table” (14:3)
  87. “at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at table” (14:3)
  88. “went to the chief priests” (14:10)
  89. “into the city” (14:13)
  90. “went out to the Mount of Olives” (14:26)
  91. “to…Gethsemane” (14:32)
  92. “to the high priest” (14:53)
  93. “into the courtyard of the high priest” (14:54)
  94. “below in the courtyard” (14:66)
  95. “went out into the gateway” (14:68)
  96. “led him away…to Pilate” (15:1)
  97. “inside the palace (that is, the praetorium)” (15:16)
  98. “led him out” (15:20)
  99. “coming in from the country” (15:21)
  100. “to the place called Golgotha” (15:22)
  101. “to Jerusalem” (15:41)
  102. “went to Pilate” (15:43)
  103. “in a tomb” (15:46)
  104. “to the tomb” (16:2)
  105. “went out and fled from the tomb” (16:8)
  106. “into the country” (16:12)
  107. “up into heaven” (16:19)
  108. “went forth…everywhere” (16:20)

Weak Geographical Markers in Mark

  1. “a little farther” (1:19)
  2. “in their boat” (1:19)
  3. “about the door” (1:33)
  4. “sat at table in his house” (2:15)
  5. “standing outside” (3:31)
  6. “sitting about him” (3:32)
  7. “sat about him” (3:34)
  8. “gathered about him” (4:1)
  9. “into a boat and sat in it on the sea” (4:1)
  10. “in the stern, asleep on the cushion” (4:38)
  11. “out of the boat” (5:2)
  12. “out of the tombs” (5:2)
  13. “among the tombs” (5:3)
  14. “from afar” (5:6)
  15. “down the steep bank into the sea” (5:13)
  16. “in the sea” (5:13)
  17. “into the boat” (5:18)
  18. “in the boat” (5:21)
  19. “gathered about him” (5:21)
  20. “beside the sea” (5:21)
  21. “at his feet” (5:22)
  22. “came up behind him” (5:27)
  23. “in the crowd” (5:30)
  24. “fell down before him” (5:33)
  25. “put them all outside” (5:40)
  26. “went in where the child was” (5:40)
  27. “in the boat” (6:32)
  28. “upon the green grass” (6:39)
  29. “into the boat” (6:45)
  30. “he came to them” (6:48)
  31. “walking on the sea” (6:49)
  32. “into the boat” (6:51)
  33. “to the shore” (6:53)
  34. “out of the boat” (6:54)
  35. “at his feet” (7:25)
  36. “on the ground” (8:6)
  37. “into the boat” (8:10)
  38. “into the boat” (8:13)
  39. “in the boat” (8:14)
  40. “on the ground” (9:20)
  41. “sat down” (9:35)
  42. “in the midst” (9:36)
  43. “in his arms” (9:36)
  44. “in his arms” (10:16)
  45. “knelt before him” (10:17)
  46. “walking ahead of them” (10:32)
  47. “by the roadside” (10:46)
  48. “came to Jesus” (10:50)
  49. “when they drew near” (11:1)
  50. “went away” (11:4)
  51. “at the door out in the open street” (11:4)
  52. “on it” (11:7)
  53. “on the road” (11:8)
  54. “those who went before and those who followed” (11:9)
  55. “those who went before and those who followed” (11:11)
  56. “in the distance” (12:13)
  57. “he came to it” (11:13)
  58. “they left him and went away” (12:12)
  59. “sat down opposite the treasury” (12:41)
  60. “over his head” (14:3)
  61. “going a little farther” (14:35)
  62. “on the ground” (14:35)
  63. “sitting with the guards” (14:54)
  64. “at the fire” (14:54)
  65. “stood up in the midst” (14:60)
  66. “came up” (15:8)
  67. “one on his right and one on his left” (15:28)
  68. “passed by” (15:29)
  69. “facing him” (15:39)
  70. “from afar” (15:40)
  71. “taking him down” (15:46)
  72. “in the linen shroud” (15:46)
  73. “against the door” (15:46)
  74. “the stone was rolled back” (16:4)
  75. “entering the tomb” (16:5)
  76. “sitting on the right side” (16:5)

Temporal Markers in Mark

  1. “in those days” (1:9)
  2. “forty days” (1:13)
  3. “after John was arrested” (1:14)
  4. “on the Sabbath” (1:21)
  5. “that evening at sundown” (1:32)
  6. “in the morning, a great while before day” (1:35)
  7. “at once” (1:43)
  8. “when he returned to Capernaum” (2:1)
  9. “after some days” (2:1)
  10. “as he passed on” (2:14)
  11. “one Sabbath” (2:23)
  12. “when his family heard it” (3:21)
  13. “when he was alone” (4:10)
  14. “On that day” (4:35)
  15. “when evening had come” (4:35)
  16. “when he had come out of the boat” (5:2)
  17. “as he was getting into the boat” (5:18)
  18. “when Jesus had crossed again in the boat to the other side” (5:21)
  19. “for twelve years” (5:25)
  20. “While he was still speaking” (5:35)
  21. “When they came to the house” (5:38)
  22. “when he had entered” (5:39)
  23. “on the sabbath” (6:2)
  24. “As he went ashore” (6:34)
  25. “when it grew late” (6:35)
  26. “the hour is now late” (6:35)
  27. “after he had taken leave of them” (6:46)
  28. “when evening came” (6:47)
  29. “about the fourth watch of the night” (6:48)
  30. “when he had entered the house” (7:17)
  31. “In those days” (8:1)
  32. “on the way” (8:27)  TEMPORAL
  33. “after three days” (8:31)
  34. “after six days” (9:2)
  35. “as they were coming” (9:9)
  36. “when they came to the disciples” (9:14)
  37. “when he had entered the house” (9:28)
  38. “after three days” (9:31)
  39. “as he was setting out on his journey” (10:17)
  40. “after three days” (10:34)
  41. “as he was leaving” (10:46)
  42. “when he had looked round at everything…” (11:11)
  43. “late” (11:11)
  44. “On the following day” (11:12)
  45. “not the season for figs” (11:13)
  46. “when evening came” (11:19)
  47. “As they passed by” (11:20)
  48. “in the morning” (11:20)
  49. “as he was walking” (11:27)
  50. “as Jesus taught” (12:35)
  51. “as he came out” (13:1)
  52. “two days before the Passover and the feast of Unleavened Bread” (14:1)
  53. “on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the passover lamb” (14:12)
  54. “when it was evening” (14:17)
  55. “as they were eating” (14:22)
  56. “when they had sung a hymn” (14:26)
  57. “one hour” (14:37)
  58. “while he was still speaking” (14:43)
  59. “in three days” (14:58)
  60. “as soon as it was morning” (15:1)
  61. “at the feast” (15:6) – TEMPORAL
  62. “the third hour” (15:25)
  63. “in three days” (15:29)
  64. “when the sixth hour had come” (15:33)
  65. “until the ninth hour” (15:33)
  66. “at the ninth hour” (15:34)
  67. “when evening had come” (15:42)
  68. “it was the day of Preparation, that is, the day before the Sabbath” (15:42)
  69. “when the sabbath was past” (16:1)
  70. “very early on the first day of the week…when the sun had risen” (16:2)
  71. “early on the first day of the week” (16:9)
  72. “as they sat at table” (16:14)
  73. “after he had spoken to them” (16:19)

 

 

Strong Geographical Markers in Luke:

  1. “enter the temple” (1:9)
  2. “in the temple” (1:21)
  3. “came out” (1:22)
  4. “in the temple” (1:22)
  5. “to his home” (1:23)
  6. “to a city of Galilee named Nazareth” (1:26)
  7. “departed from her (1:38)
  8. “into the hill country” (1:39)
  9. “to a city of Judah” (1:39)
  10. “entered the house of Zechariah” (1:40)
  11. “returned to her home” (1:56)
  12. “all the hill country of Judea” (1:65)
  13. “in the wilderness” (1:80)
  14. “up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem” (2:4)
  15. “in the inn” (2:7)
  16. “in that region” (2:8)
  17. “out in the field” (2:8)
  18. “in the city of David” (2:11)
  19. “into heaven” (2:15)
  20. “to Bethlehem” (2:15)
  21. “returned” (2:20)
  22. “to Jerusalem” (2:22)
  23. “in Jerusalem” (2:25)
  24. “into the temple” (2:27)
  25. “returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth” (2:39)
  26. “to Jerusalem” (2:41)
  27. “stayed behind in Jerusalem” (2:43)
  28. “a day’s journey” (2:44)
  29. “returned to Jerusalem” (2:45)
  30. “in the temple” (2:46)
  31. “to Nazareth” (2:51)
  32. “in the wilderness” (3:2)
  33. “into all the region about the Jordan” (3:3)
  34. “in prison” (3:20)
  35. “from heaven” (3:22)
  36. “returned from the Jordan” (4:1)
  37. “in the wilderness” (4:2)
  38. “to Jerusalem” (4:9)
  39. “on the pinnacle of the temple” (4:9)
  40. “departed from him” (4:13)
  41. “into Galilee” (4:14)
  42. “through all the surrounding country” (4:14)
  43. “in their synagogues” (4:15)
  44. “to Nazareth” (4:16)
  45. “to the synagogue” (4:16)
  46. “out of the city” (4:29)
  47. “to the brow of the hill on which their city was built” (4:29)
  48. “passing through the midst of them he went away” (4:30)
  49. “to Capernaum, a city of Galilee” (4:31)
  50. “in the synagogue” (4:33)
  51. “into every place in the surrounding region” (4:37)
  52. “left the synagogue” (4:38)
  53. “entered Simon’s house” (4:38)
  54. “he departed and went into a lonely place” (4:42)
  55. “in the synagogues of Judea” (4:44)
  56. “by the lake of Gennesaret” (5:1)
  57. “to land” (5:11)
  58. “to the wilderness” (5:16)
  59. “from every village of Galilee and Judea and from Jerusalem” (5:17)
  60. “he rose before them…and went home” (5:25)
  61. “he went out” (5:27)
  62. “at the tax office” (5:27)
  63. “in his house” (5:29)
  64. “the grainfields” (6:1)
  65. “entered the synagogue” (6:6)
  66. “went out to the mountain” (6:12)
  67. “from all Judea and Jerusalem and the seacoast of Tyre and Sidon” (6:17)
  68. “entered Capernaum” (7:1)
  69. “went with them” (7:6)
  70. “returned to the house” (7:10)
  71. “went to a city called Nain” (7:11)
  72. “to the gate of the city” (7:12)
  73. “the whole of Judea and all the surrounding country” (7:17)
  74. “into the wilderness” (7:24)
  75. “went on through cities and villages” (8:1)
  76. “from town after town came to him” (8:4)
  77. “across to the other side of the lake” (8:22)
  78. “country of the Gerasenes, which is opposite Galilee” (8:26)
  79. “on land” (8:27)
  80. “from the city” (8:27)
  81. “among the tombs” (8:27)
  82. “into the desert” (8:29)
  83. “into the abyss” (8:31)
  84. “the surrounding country of the Gerasenes” (8:37)
  85. “returned” (8:37)
  86. “from the ruler’s house” (8:49)
  87. “to the house” (8:51)
  88. “through the villages…everywhere” (9:6)
  89. “On their return” (9:10)
  90. “to a city called Bethsaida” (9:10)
  91. “went up on the mountain” (9:28)
  92. “down from the mountain” (9:37)
  93. “to Jerusalem” (9:51)
  94. “entered a village of the Samaritans” (9:52)
  95. “went on to another village” (9:56)
  96. “into every town and place where he himself was about to come” (10:1)
  97. “returned” (10:17)
  98. “entered a village” (10:38)
  99. “into her house” (10:38)
  100. “in a certain place” (11:1)
  101. “went away from there” (11:53)
  102. “in one of the synagogues” (13:10)
  103. “went on his way through towns and villages” (13:22)
  104. “journeying toward Jerusalem” (13:22)
  105. “at the house” (14:1)
  106. “On the way to Jerusalem he was passing along between Samaria and Galilee” (17:11)
  107. “a village” (17:12)
  108. “up to Jerusalem” (18:31)
  109. “to Jericho” (18:35)
  110. “entered Jericho and was passing through” (19:1)
  111. “near to Jerusalem” (19:11)
  112. “he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem” (19:28)
  113. “to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount that is called Olivet” (19:29)
  114. “into the village opposite” (19:30)
  115. “at the descent of the Mount of Olives” (19:37)
  116. “when he drew near” (19:41)
  117. “entered the temple” (19:45)
  118. “in the temple” (19:47)
  119. “in the temple” (20:1)
  120. “in the temple” (21:37)
  121. “he went out and lodged on the mount called Olivet” (21:37)
  122. “in the temple” (21:38)
  123. “he went away” (22:4)
  124. “they went” (22:13)
  125. “came out, and went…to the Mount of Olives” (22:39)
  126. “in the temple” (22:53)
  127. “into the high priest’s house” (22:54)
  128. “led him away to their council” (22:66)
  129. “brought him before Pilate” (23:1)
  130. “all Judea, from Galilee even to this place” (23:5)
  131. “sent him over to Herod” (23:7)
  132. “in Jerusalem” (23:7)
  133. “sent him back to Pilate” (23:11)
  134. “as they led him away” (23:26)
  135. “coming in from the country” (23:26)
  136. “to the place which is called The Skull” (23:33)
  137. “coming up” (23:36)
  138. “returned home” (23:48)
  139. “from Galilee” (23:49)
  140. “from the Jewish town of Arimathea” (23:50)
  141. “went to Pilate” (23:52)
  142. “in a rock-hewn tomb” (23:53)
  143. “from Galilee” (23:55)
  144. “they returned” (23:56)
  145. “to the tomb” (24:1)
  146. “went in” (24:3)
  147. “in Galilee” (24:6)
  148. “returning from the tomb” (24:9)
  149. “to a village named Emmaus” (24:13)
  150. “about seven miles from Jerusalem” (24:13)
  151. “drew near and went with them” (24:15)
  152. “at the tomb” (24:22)
  153. “came back” (24:23)
  154. “went to the tomb” (24:24)
  155. “drew near to the village” (24:28)
  156. “he went in to stay with them” (24:29)
  157. “on the road” (24:32)
  158. “returned to Jerusalem” (24:33)
  159. “gathered together” (24:33)
  160. “on the road” (24:35)
  161. “from Jerusalem” (24:47)
  162. “in the city” (24:49)
  163. “led them out as far as Bethany” (24:50)
  164. “he parted from them” (24:51)
  165. “up into heaven” (24:51)
  166. “returned to Jerusalem” (24:52)
  167. “in the temple” (24:53)

Weak Geographical Markers in Luke:

  1. “praying outside” (1:10)
  2. “standing on the right side of the altar of incense” (1:11)
  3. “in a manger” (2:7)
  4. “in a manger” (2:12)
  5. “in a manger” (2:16)
  6. “in his arms” (2:28)
  7. “sitting among the teachers” (2:46)
  8. “descended upon him” (3:22)
  9. “took him up” (4:5)
  10. “stood up” (4:16)
  11. “sat down” (4:20)
  12. “thrown him down in the midst” (4:35)
  13. “stood over her” (4:39)
  14. “brought them to him” (4:40)
  15. “by the lake” (5:2)
  16. “into one of the boats” (5:3)
  17. “put out a little from the land” (5:3)
  18. “sat down” (5:3)
  19. “from the boat” (5:3)
  20. “fell on his face” (5:12)
  21. “on the roof” (5:19)
  22. “through the tiles” (5:19)
  23. “into the midst” (5:19)
  24. “he rose and stood there” (6:8)
  25. “came down with them and stood on a level place” (6:17)
  26. “When he was not far from the house” (7:6)
  27. “drew near” (7:12)
  28. “come to him” (7:20)
  29. “standing behind him at his feet” (7:38)
  30. “standing outside” (8:20)
  31. “into a boat” (8:22)
  32. “stepped out” (8:27)
  33. “fell down before him” (8:28)
  34. “on the hillside” (8:32)
  35. “out of the man and entered the swine” (8:33)
  36. “down the steep bank into the lake” (8:33)
  37. “came to Jesus” (8:35)
  38. “at the feet of Jesus” (8:35)
  39. “into the boat” (8:37)
  40. “falling at Jesus’ feet” (8:41)
  41. “around him” (8:42)
  42. “came up behind him” (8:44)
  43. “surround you” (8:45)
  44. “falling down before him” (8:47)
  45. “out of the cloud” (9:35)
  46. “ahead of him” (9:52)
  47. “along the road” (9:57)
  48. “sent them on ahead of him” (10:1)
  49. “at the Lord’s feet” (10:39)
  50. “went in” (11:37)
  51. “sat at table” (11:37)
  52. “stood at a distance” (17:12)
  53. “turned back…and he fell on his face at Jesus’ feet” (17:15-16)
  54. “sitting by the roadside” (18:35)
  55. “passing by” (18:37)
  56. “those who were in front” (18:39)
  57. “when he came near” (18:40)
  58. “came near” (18:40)
  59. “up into a sycamore tree” (19:4)
  60. “came down” (19:6)
  61. “brought it to Jesus” (19:35)
  62. “on the colt” (19:35)
  63. “upon it” (19:35)
  64. “on the road” (19:36)
  65. “sat at table” (22:14)
  66. “he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw” (22:41)
  67. “knelt down” (22:41)
  68. “came to the disciples” (22:45)
  69. “drew near to Jesus” (22:47)
  70. “at a distance” (22:54)
  71. “in the middle of the courtyard” (22:55)
  72. “among them” (22:55)
  73. “stood by” (23:10)
  74. “on him” (23:26)
  75. “behind Jesus” (23:26)
  76. “followed him” (23:27)
  77. “one on the right and one on the left” (23:33)
  78. “stood by” (23:35)
  79. “over him” (23:38)
  80. “stood at a distance” (23:49)
  81. “took it down” (23:53)
  82. “followed” (23:55)
  83. “rolled away from the tomb” (24:2)
  84. “stood by them” (24:4)
  85. “bowed their faces to the ground” (24:5)
  86. “appeared to be going further” (24:28)
  87. “vanished out of their sight” (24:31)
  88. “stood among them” (24:36)
  89. “lifting up his hands” (24:50)

Temporal Markers in Luke:

  1. “In the days of Herod, king of Judea” (1:5)
  2. “while he was serving as priest” (1:8)
  3. “at the hour of incense” (1:10)
  4. “until the day that these things come to pass” (1:20)
  5. “when he came out” (1:22)
  6. “when his time of service was ended” (1:23)
  7. “After these days” (1:24)
  8. “for five months” (1:24)
  9. “In the sixth month” (1:26)
  10. “sixth month” (1:36)
  11. “when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary” (1:41)
  12. “about three months” (1:56)
  13. “the time came for Elizabeth to be delivered” (1:57)
  14. “on the eighth day” (1:59)
  15. “till the day of his manifestation to Israel” (1:80)
  16. “In those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus” (2:1)
  17. “when Quirinius was governor of Syria” (2:2)
  18. “while they were there the time came for her to be delivered.” (2:6)
  19. “by night” (2:8)
  20. “this day” (2:11)
  21. “suddenly” (2:13)
  22. “at the end of eight days” (2:21)
  23. “when he was circumcised” (2:21)
  24. “before he was conceived in the womb” (2:21)
  25. “when the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses” (2:22)
  26. “when the parents brought in the child Jesus” (2:27)
  27. “seven years from her virginity, and as a widow till she was eighty-four” (2:36-37)
  28. “at that very hour” (2:38)
  29. “when they had performed everything according to the law” (2:39)
  30. “twelve years old” (2:42)
  31. “when the feast was ended, as they were returning” (2:43)
  32. “After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers” (2:46)
  33. “In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, in the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas” (3:1-2)
  34. “when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying” (3:21)
  35. “about thirty years of age” (3:23)
  36. “when they were ended” (4:2)
  37. “when the devil had ended every temptation” (4:13)
  38. “on the Sabbath” (4:16)
  39. “on the Sabbath” (4:31)
  40. “when the sun was setting” (4:40)
  41. “when it was day” (4:42)
  42. “when he had ceased speaking” (5:4)
  43. “all night” (5:5)
  44. “when they had brought their boats to land” (5:11)
  45. “While he was in one of the cities” (5:12)
  46. “immediately” (5:13)
  47. “On one of those days, as he was teaching” (5:17)
  48. “When Jesus perceived their questionings” (5:22)
  49. “immediately” (5:25)
  50. “After this” (5:27)
  51. “on a Sabbath” (6:1)
  52. “while he was going through” (6:1)
  53. “On another sabbath” (6:6)
  54. “in these days” (6:12)
  55. “all night” (6:12)
  56. “when it was day” (6:13)
  57. “After he had ended all his sayings” (7:1)
  58. “Soon afterward” (7:11)
  59. “As he drew near” (7:12)
  60. “when the men had come to him” (7:20)
  61. “When the messengers of John had gone” (7:24)
  62. “When they heard this” (7:29)
  63. “when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it” (7:39)
  64. “Soon afterward” (8:1)
  65. “when a great crowd came together” (8:4)
  66. “One day” (8:22)
  67. “as he stepped out” (8:27)
  68. “When he saw Jesus” (8:28)
  69. “When the herdsmen saw what had happened” (8:34)
  70. “when Jesus returned” (8:40)
  71. “for twelve years” (8:43)
  72. “immediately” (8:44)
  73. “While he was still speaking” (8:49)
  74. “on hearing this” (8:50)
  75. “the day began to wear away” (9:12)
  76. “as he was praying alone” (9:18)
  77. “on the third day” (9:22)
  78. “about eight days after these sayings” (9:28)
  79. “as he was praying” (9:29)
  80. “as the men were parting from him” (9:33)
  81. “On the next day” (9:37)
  82. “While he was coming” (9:42)
  83. “while they were all marveling” (9:43)
  84. “when Jesus perceived the thought of their hearts” (9:47)
  85. “When the days drew near for him to be received up” (9:51)
  86. “when his disciples James and John saw it” (9:54)
  87. “As they were going” (9:57)
  88. “after this” (10:1)
  89. “In that same hour” (10:21)
  90. “as they went on their way” (10:38)
  91. “when he ceased” (11:1)
  92. “As he said this” (11:27)
  93. “When the crowds were increasing” (11:29)
  94. “While he was speaking” (11:37)
  95. “As he went away from there” (11:53)
  96. “In the meantime” (12:1)
  97. “on the Sabbath” (13:10)
  98. “for eighteen years” (13:11)
  99. “when Jesus saw her” (13:12)
  100. “immediately” (13:13)
  101. “At that very hour” (13:31)
  102. “One sabbath when he went to dine” (14:1)
  103. “When one of those who sat at table with him heard this” (14:15)
  104. “So he told them this parable” (15:3)
  105. “as he entered a village” (17:12)
  106. “When he saw them” (17:14)
  107. “as they went they were cleansed” (17:14)
  108. “when he saw that he was healed” (17:15)
  109. “when the disciples saw it” (18:15)
  110. “when he heard this” (18:23)
  111. “on the third day” (18:33)
  112. “As he drew near” (18:35)
  113. “immediately” (18:43)
  114. “when Jesus came to the place” (19:5)
  115. “when they saw it” (19:7)
  116. “As they heard these things” (19:11)
  117. “when he had said this” (19:28)
  118. “When he drew near”
  119. “as they were untying the colt” (19:33)
  120. “as he rode along” (19:36)
  121. “As he was now drawing near” (19:37)
  122. “daily” (19:47)
  123. “one day, as he was teaching” (20:1)
  124. “every day” (21:37)
  125. “at night” (21:37)
  126. “early in the morning” (21:38)
  127. “the feast of Unleavened Bread drew near” (22:1)
  128. “Then came the day of Unleavened Bread” (22:7)
  129. “when the hour came” (22:14)
  130. “this day” (22:34)
  131. “when he came to the place” (22:40)
  132. “While he was still speaking” (22:47)
  133. “a little later” (22:58)
  134. “after an interval of about an hour” (22:59)
  135. “immediately, while he was still speaking” (22:60)
  136. “When day came” (22:66)
  137. “When Pilate heard this” (23:6)
  138. “at that time” (23:7)
  139. “When Herod saw Jesus” (23:8)
  140. “that very day” (23:12)
  141. “as they led him away” (23:26)
  142. “when they came to the place which is called The Skull” (23:33)
  143. “today” (23:43)
  144. “about the sixth hour” (23:44)
  145. “until the ninth hour while the sun’s light failed” (23:44-45)
  146. “when the centurion saw what had taken place” (23:47)
  147. “when they saw what had taken place” (23:48)
  148. “the day of Preparation, and the sabbath was beginning” (23:54)
  149. “on the Sabbath” (23:56)
  150. “on the first day of the week” (24:1)
  151. “at early dawn” (24:1)
  152. “While they were perplexed about this” (24:4)
  153. “as they were frightened” (24:5)
  154. “while he was still in Galilee” (24:6)
  155. “on the third day” (24:7)
  156. “That very day” (24:13)
  157. “While they were talking” (24:15)
  158. “the third day since this happened” (24:21)
  159. “early in the morning” (24:22)
  160. “it is toward evening and the day is now far spent” (24:29)
  161. “When he was at table with them” (24:30)
  162. “that same hour” (24:33)
  163. “As they were saying this” (24:36)
  164. “while they still disbelieved” (24:41)
  165. “while I was still with you” (24:44)
  166. “on the third day” (24:46)
  167. “While he blessed them” (24:51)

 

 

Strong Geographical Markers in John

  1. “in Bethany beyond the Jordan” (1:28)
  2. “to Galilee” (1:43)
  3. “in Cana of Galilee” (2:1, 11)
  4. “to Capernaum” (2:12)
  5. “to Jerusalem” (2:13, 23)
  6. “land of Judea” (3:22)
  7. “at Aeon near Salim” (3:23)
  8. “left Judea and departed again to Galilee” (4:3)
  9. “came to a city of Samaria called Sychar” (4:5)
  10. “he deparated to Galilee” (4:43)
  11. “Cana in Galilee” (4:46)
  12. when he had come from Judea to Galilee” (4:54)
  13. “to Jerusalem” (5:1)
  14. “to the other side of the Sea of Galilee” (6:1)
  15. “started across the sea to Capernaum” (6:16)
  16. “in the synagogue…at Capernaum” (6:59)
  17. “went about in Galilee” (7:1)
  18. “to the Mount of Olives” (8:1) [about women caught in adulerty]
  19. “to the temple” (8:2) [about women caught in adulerty]
  20. “these words he spoke in the treasury” (8:20) [about women caught in adulerty]
  21. “Jesus…went out of the temple” (8:59)
  22. “at Jerusalem” (10:22)
  23. “it was winter” (10:23)
  24. “in the temple” (10:23)
  25. “in the portico of Solomon” (10:23)
  26. “He went away again across the Jordan to the place where John at first baptized” (10:40)
  27. “into Judea (11:7,17)
  28. “Jesus had not yet come to the village, but was still in the place where Martha had met him” (11:30)
  29. “went from there to the country near the wilderness, to a town called Ephraim” (11:54)
  30. “to Bethany” (12:1)
  31. “Jesus was coming to Jerusalem” (12:12)
  32. “across the Kidron valley, where there was a garden” (18:1)
  33. “the court of the high priest” (18:15)
  34. “to the praetorium” (18:28)
  35. “Pilate…sat down on the judgment seat” (19:13)
  36. “he went out…to the place called the place of a skull” (19:17)
  37. “the tomb was close at hand” (19:42)
  38. “came to the tomb” (20:1)
  39. “toward the tomb” (20:3)
  40. “went back to their homes” (20:10)
  41. “in the house” (20:26)
  42. “by the Sea of Tiberias” (21:1)
  43. “not far from land, but about a hundred yards off” (21:8)

Weak Geographical Markers in John

  1. “when they had rowed about three or four miles” (6:19)
  2. “outside the tomb” (20:11)
  3. “stood on the beach” (21:4)

Temporal Markers in John

  1. “the next day” (1:29)
  2. “the next day” (1:31)
  3. “about the tenth hour” (1:39)
  4. “the next day” (1:43)
  5. “on the third day” (2:1)
  6. “the Passover…was at hand” (2:13, 23)
  7. “after this” (3:22)
  8. “it was about the sixth hour” (4:6)
  9. “after the two days” (4:43)
  10. “when he had come” (4:54)
  11. “after this” (5:1)
  12. “a feast of the Jews” (5:1)
  13. “was the Sabbath” (5:9)
  14. “after this” (6:1)
  15. “the Passover…was at hand” (6:4)
  16. “when evening came” (6:16)
  17. “it was now dark” (6:17)
  18. “the next day” (6:22)
  19. “after this” (7:1)
  20. “now the…Feast of Tabernacles was at hand” (7:2)
  21. “about the middle of the feast” (7:14)
  22. “on the last day of the feast” (7:37)
  23. “early in the morning” (8:2) [about women caught in adulerty]
  24. “as he passed by” (9:1)
  25. “it was the Sabbath day” (9:14)
  26. “the feast of Dedication” (10:22)
  27. “stayed two days longer” (11:6)
  28. “the Passover…was at hand” (11:55)
  29. “Six days before the Passover” (12:1)
  30. “the next day” (12:12)
  31. “before the feast of the Passover: (13:1)
  32. “during supper” (13:2)
  33. “it was night” (13:30)
  34. “When Jesus had spoken these words: (18:1)
  35. “it was early” (18:28)
  36. “it was the day of Preparation of the Passover” (19:14)
  37. “it was about the sixth hour” (19:14)
  38. “standing by the cross” (19:25)
  39. “it was the day of Preparation” (19:31)
  40. “after this” (19:38)
  41. “on the first day of the week” (20:1)
  42. “early, while it was still dark” (20:1)
  43. “On the evening of that day, the first day of the week” (20:19)
  44. “eight days later” (20:26)
  45. “after this” (21:1)
  46. “night” (21:3)
  47. “just as day was breaking” (21:4)
  48. “when they had finished breakfast” (21:15)

[1]This figure includes the longer ending of Mark (16:9-20).  If the longer ending is excluded, then Mark’s gospel contains 11,133 words (2876 unique).

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